One response to the stress of mission life and its destruction of Indian cultures was for women to have abortions. By the mids, Spain had already founded missions in Baja California. Bureau of Indian Affairs. Prayer lasted four hours on Sundays and feast days.
The success of the Spanish colonies in the Americas were based on this exploitation.
In other words, the Spanish colonization of California would have been more difficult without the Indian slave labor. They upturned soil by harvesting bulb plants, which caused such vegetation to multiply.
That is, were Spanish motives based on a desire to promote conversion or on a desire to have religious missions serve as a buffer to protect the main colonial settlements and an aid in controlling the Indians?
In the 18th century the Spanish crown considered it a religious duty to reduce heathenism and to bring as many native peoples as possible the virtues of Catholicism. Every person living and working at the Native americans in california missions had to be officially baptized as a rite of passage.
The missionaries tended to believe that epidemics were a punishment sent by God and that they should not interfere with the will of God.
San Juan Capistrano Mission. InSpain ordered a military expedition to explore and occupy Alta California. This process was envisioned as having four basic stages: Eleven of the Southern California reservations were included under the early 20th century allotment programs, which broke up communal tribal holdings to assign property to individual households, with individual heads of household and tribal members identified lists such as the Dawes Rolls.
One of these Spanish institutions was repartimiento. The Native Americans ended up becoming tax pay citizens along with being under Spanish wing twenty-four hours a day, seven days a week. Although the California Missions had the right intentions of providing for the Native Americans, the Spanish acted in an inhumane and unfair way.
However, the climate of coercive social control that existed in the missions engendered a negative psychological response among Indian converts. The lifestyle in the California Missions was set in a very rigorous schedule so it was nearly impossible for the Native Americans to take a break or escape the hardship.
In addition to using Indian labor for themselves, the Franciscans also provided Indian labor for both military garrisons and for individual Spanish colonists. A third factor, which strongly intensified the effect of the other two, was the social and physical disruption visited upon the Indian.
The Franciscans, backed by a small number of soldiers stationed at the missions, imposed a rigid system of coerced and disciplined labor, enforced by the use of corporal punishment and other forms of control.
One of the problems of congregation was that it placed large populations in fairly spatially compact communities.
Spanish explorers arrived on the border of California during the 16th century.
Mission Indians were from many regional Native American tribes ; their members were often relocated together in new mixed groups and the Spanish name  d the Indian groups after the responsible mission.
Often, children or women with children were forcibly removed to the missions and used as leverage to bring the rest of their families in.
Additional causes include a diet high in carbohydrates, but low in vegetables and animal protein, working conditions, harsh life-styles imposed by the missionaries, and poor sanitation and health care.
The final years of the Los Angeles area missions were troublesome. The missions were geographically isolated from the rest of New Spain until the early nineteenth century and this tended to isolate them from many epidemics.
The Spanish were steeped in a legacy of religious intolerance and conformity which featured a messianic fanaticism accentuating both Spanish culture in general and Catholicism in particular. He was driven from his home by the thousands, starved, beaten, raped, and murdered with impunity.
Thomas Farnham, an early Anglo-American visitor to Mission Santa Barbara, was repelled by the evidence of massive death he found there. He instructed and gave the Native Americans and other workers their duties. University of California Press, A History of American Indians in California: Thus, "it should be clear, then, that the missions of California were not solely religious institutions.
They were, on the contrary, instruments designed to bring about a total change in culture in a brief period of time." Native revivals are known to have occurred as in the Santa Barbara. California Indians, Before, During, and After the Mission Era Introduction The California Missions Foundation is committed to the full and accurate depiction of history in early California.
CMF will continue to work with California Indian scholars, leaders, and cultural experts to develop this site into a robust source of information about California Indian experiences. The Missions were religious outposts established by Spanish Catholic Franciscans from to for the purpose of protecting Spain's territory by settlements and converting the Californian Native Americans to a Christian religion.
The Native Americans in this region were converted in large numbers in the s. Before the century was out the native villages had largely disappeared for a number of reasons: the Indians had joined one of the missions, were working for settlers, had died from European diseases or had fled to the interior.
Missions destroyed Native culture. Recommended Annotation Visible only to you. Unable to save at this time. ANTHRO 6 - An Introduction to California's Native People. MISSIONIZATION.
The primary instrument of colonization in California was the mission. In the 18th century the Spanish crown considered it a religious duty to reduce heathenism and to bring as many native peoples as possible the virtues of Catholicism.Download